Date of Award

Spring 5-21-2018

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Sheila Gregory, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Barbara Hill, Ed.D.

Third Advisor

James Young, Ph.D.


Schools have defined parental involvement as parent reported participation at least once during the school year. Participation can consist of attending a school meeting, parent/teacher conference, school event or volunteering in the school. Researchers have spent countless hours researching parental involvement and its impact on academic success for students. Researchers have conducted studies using two-parent households, single-parent households and studies comparing single-parent households to two-parent households. A majority of the studies had favorable outcomes for two-parent households and not so favorable outcomes for single-parent households. Especially, if those households were headed by a single African American female.

During the second half of the 20th century, the number of children living in single-parent families. Census data, from 1960, reported 9 percent of children lived in single-parent homes compared to 28 percent in 2000. Single-parent homes headed by African American mothers, are often the scapegoat for a variety of the academic problems African American youth encounter.