This paper examines the differing perceptions of Africans and African-Americans toward eight different approaches to workplace opportunities that were placed in a continuum within the established inclusion-exclusion construct. The opportunity structures that were placed in an ordered hierarchy were inclusion, diversity, mentorship, merit, equal employment opportunity, affirmative action, discrimination, and preferential treatment. The individual and organizational values that underlie these opportunity structures were based on research related to acceptance and support for values underlying fairness and equity (inclusion) and the rejection of values opposing fairness and equity (exclusion) in the U.S. value system.