Date of Award


Degree Type


University or Center

Clark Atlanta University(CAU)


School of Arts and Sciences

Degree Name


First Advisor

Professor Earle D. Clowney


This dissertation proposes an analysis of the consonants C/k/ and G/g/ from Vulgar Latin to the five Romance Languages: French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian in the initial, medial, and/or ending positions up to the 12th century. This study examined the evolution of C/k/ and G/g/ in each language while noting the history and cultures that impacted their evolution.

I discuss how the spoken language of Italian evolved slowly from the late Vulgar Latin of the Empire, in close contact with the universal standard of Medieval Latin, yet is consistent with the rest of the languages in this study when it comes to consonants /b/ d/g/ being pronounced as plosives when they occur at the beginning of the word. I examine the similarities that persist in Romanian and Italian, in spite of Romanian's isolation from the other Romance languages.

I selected these consonants based on the conjugation irregularity of Romance verbs. The findings reflect a consistent conclusion taking into account scribers' errors, political reformations and numerous wars: Relative to all the languages in this research: initial consonants, single or followed by another consonant, remained unchanged; less resistance is offered by intervocalic consonants that either weakened or just disappeared; and final unsupported (preceded by a vowel) consonants or supported (preceded by a consonant) either remained or disappeared, up to the twelfth century. Research also included such variables impacting the languages as cultural concerns; non-contact with other Romance languages; and, geographical isolation.

Signature Location_Supplemental file.pdf (45 kB)
Notice to Users, Transmittal and Statement of Understanding