Date of Award


Degree Type


University or Center

Atlanta University (AU)

Degree Name



First Advisor

Dr. Benjamin F. Hudson


The purpose of this paper is to analyse works of Stephane Mallarme, father of Symbolism, pointing out romantic and parnassian elements. Symbolism, like Romanticism, attempted to express the interior thoughts of man. The symbolist movement then, was not only a revolt against Parnassianism but also a return to Romanticism. On the other hand, one would not be incorrect in saying that Romanticism reached its culmination in the works of the symbolists poets. For this reason, an attempt will be made to show that the works of Mallarme, father of Symbolism, can be considered as a synthesis of Romanticism and Parnassianism.

This thesis contains three chapters. The first chapter is devoted to a discussion of Romanticism and of Parnassianism. Special attention is given to the origin, development, characteristics and influences of each school. The relationship of one School with the other is also pointed out.

The second chapter consists of a biographical sketch of Stephane Mallarme. Special emphasis is placed on factors and events in his life which may have influenced or determined the elements of Romanticism and Parnassianism in his poetry.

The third chapter is devoted to an analysis of some of the poems of Stephane Mallarme", "Les Fenetres," «V Apparition," "L'Azur," "Toast Funebre," "Le Vierge," "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune." In these analyses special attention is given to the romantic and parnassian tendencies of the poems.

Since these romantic-parnaassian elements occur frequently throughout his works, it has been concluded that Mallarme's poetry can be considered as a synthesis of the two poetic schools.