Date of Award


Degree Type


University or Center

Atlanta University (AU)

Degree Name




First Advisor

Dr. Nerimiah Emmett


During the past thirty years, investigators of the renin-angiotensin system have found renin-like substances in a number of non-traditional locations throughout mammalian systems. These renin-like substances have been found in virtually every component of the brain, as well as the salivary glands, adrenal glands, blood vessels, genital tracts of both males and females, tumor cell lines, and even the eyeball and retina. This thesis is a literary review which will focus on extrarenal renin sources located in the uterus and the testis. These two locations are of particular interest because of the probable function in the regulation of the reproductive cycle. In addition, information on submaxillary gland renin and brain renin will also be discussed but to a lesser extent than uterine and Leydig Cell renin.

Extrarenal renin sources have been tagged as renin-like enzymes, or more popularly as isorenins, because immunologically they react as true renin does. The immunoreactivity of these isorenins has been detected by a number of methods which include immunohistochemistry, specific staining characteristics of immunolabelling, native gel electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, double immunodiffusion, and symmetric chromatographic elution patterns.

Extensive research in this area is still underway. Numerous modes of detection are being used to evaluate the specific sites of synthesis for these extrarenal renin sources, as well as their release mechanisms and physiological roles. Undoubtedly, the data resulting from these investigations will reveal significant information regarding these non-traditional renin sources and their clinical relevance in the treatment of hypertension.

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