Date of Award

6-1949

Degree Type

Thesis

University or Center

Atlanta University (AU)

School

School of Education

Degree Name

M.A.

Abstract

Statement of the Problem.-- This study was designed to determine whether or not there is any relationship between knowledge of intergroup relations and certain mental traits.

Definition of Terms. -- In order to preclude ambiguity or misunderstanding, certain terms used in the study are defined in the paragraphs immediately below.

The term "intergroup relations" as used in this study "is defined as including race relations, interoreedal problems, immigrant cultures, rural urban contacts, and socioeconomic ( or class) differences."

"Stereotyping" is used in a narrow sense to refer to "tendencies toward positive or negative rating of personality traits as applied to members of certain groups as such."

The term "attitudes" is used in accordance with the concept employed in the design o:f' "An Opinionaire in Intergroup Relations" in which they are referred to as ideas, viewpoints, opinions, and beliefs concerning a number of current issues in intergroup relations affecting four minority

groups -- Jews, Negroes, foreign born, and lower class people.

"Intelligence" is used in the study as that which is measured by the

"New California Short-Form Test of' Mental Maturity, Advanced '47 S-Form," namely, "the maturity of' spatial relationships; of logical reasoning ; of mathematical reasoning; and of useful concepts or vocabulary."

"Personality adjustment" is considered in the light of the implications of' the factors measured by the "California Test of' Personality"; namely, a balance between self' adjustment based on feelings of' personal security and social adjustment based on feelings of social security.

Purpose of the Study.-- The purpose of' this study was to answer the following questions:

1. What is the relationship, if any, between knowledge of' intergroup relations and attitudes toward Jews, Negroes, foreign born, and lower class people, separately and combined

2. What is the relationship, if any, between knowledge of' intergroup relations and similarity of attitudes toward Negroes and Jews?

3. What is the relationship, if' any, between knowledge of' intergroup relations and divergence of' opinions concerning Negroes?

4. What is the relationship, if any, between knowledge of' intergroup relations and the indication of definite trends of opinion concerning Jews?

5. What is the relationship, if any, between knowledge of intergroup relations and definite opinions concerning foreign born?

6. What is the relationship, if any, between knowledge of intergroup relations and the tendency to stereotype members of certain groups?

7. What is the relationship, if any, between knowledge of intergroup relations and intelligence?

a. What is the relationship, if any, between knowledge of intergroup relations and religious values?

9. What is the relationship, if any, between knowledge and intergroup relations and personality adjustment?

10. What is the relationship, if any, between the .factors that are statistically significantly related to knowledge of intergroup relations?

11. What is the effect, if any, of partialed out factors on relationships existing between knowledge of intergroup relations and associated variables?

12. To what extent, if any is the variability of knowledge of intergroup relations affected by eliminating the influence of the variability of certain combinations of variables?

13. To what extent is the total degree of relationship between knowledge of intergroup relations and other variables increased by the addition of another variable?

14. What are the total and relative contributions of the independent variables to knowledge of intergroup relations?

Collection of Data.-- A consideration of the methods and tools of collecting data resulted in the selection of seven tests: (1) "An Opinionaire in Intergroup Relations," (2) "What People Are Like," (3) "Experience With Negroes: Community Contacts," (4) "A Test of Knowledge of Intergroup Relations," (5) "A Study of Values, fl ( 6) "New California Short-Form Test of Mental

Maturity, Advanced “47 S-Form,”(7) "California Test of Personality – Adult Series. A copy of each of these tests will be found in the Appendix. The first four tests were designed for the College Study in Intergroup Relations.

"A Test of Knowledge of Intergroup Relations" was chosen as the basic test.

It consists of one hundred questions which relate to five major areas and five types of knowledge. The areas represented a.re race relations, intercreedal problems, immigrant cultures, rural-urban contacts, and socioeconomic (class) differences. The types of knowledge represented are concepts and definitions, present status, history and trends, current problems, and proposed solutions. This test is still in the experimental stage with the reliability and validity not fully established. However, "they are estimated to be good11 and the test is recommended as being "basically sound."

"An Opinionaire 'in Intergroup Relations" is a forty-item attitude scale which is made up of four subscales pertaining to reactions toward Jews,

Negroes, foreign born, and lower class people. The reliability and validity of this test have been satisfactorily established "for all mass-comparative uses."

''What People Are Liken was used to determine stereotypic tendencies as indicated by responses to fourteen questions concerning nine groups of people.

These groups are: graduate students, Jews, Negroes, Catholics, Protestants, Mexicans, Polish, lower class, and rural dwellers. Like the basic test, this test is also in an experimental stage, but it is thought to be basically sound."

“ Experiences With Negroes: Community Contacts" is an experience inventory consisting of twenty-six items which relate to various contacts with Negroes in the community. The reliability and validity of this test have been satisfactorily established for college classes.

The "New California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity and the "California

Test of' Personality” are both recognized as reliable and valid in their particular fields. The reliability and validity for religious values in "A Study of Values" a.re necessary.

In addition to the tests each student was asked to fill out a "Personal Data. Sheet, designed by the College Study in Intergroup Relations, for the purpose of understanding the subjects better. A copy of this sheet is in the Appendix. It gives information about the age, sex, birthplace, religious preference, occupational goal, major field, and other facts which would a.id in understanding something of the background of the subjects. Each student was assigned a number to be used on the "Personal Data Sheet" and all the tests in lieu of their names. It was felt that this would eliminate some of the reticence which might accompany the answers to some of the questions.

Sixty students were selected at random from a list of graduate students enrolled in the School of Education of Atlanta University. These students were contacted by mail and asked to be subjects for the study. Fifty-one responded and took all the tests required. Of this number thirty--two were in-service teachers taking part-time work in the university, one a secretary taking part-time work, and eighteen were full-time students. The group included thirty women and twenty-one men ranging in age from twenty-two to sixty-three. The mean age was 3~.53 and the median age 30.88. The birthplaces of these subjects include eleven states in the United States, among which were Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Florida., Virginia,

Mississippi, Missouri, Louisiana, Texas, and Ohio, and one province in Canada - Ontario. The religious preferences of the group numbered forty-seven Protestants, three Catholics and one agnostic. Other information concerning the subjects is summarized in the Appendix.

The tests were administered over a. period of one month. Two groups assemblies were held, the first on November 23 at which time three tests were given and the "Personal Data Sheets" filled out, the second on December 3 at which time the last four tests were administered. The tests had to be administered to some individually because of inability to meet with the group.

In all cases the directions for taking the tests were read by the examiner and the directions as given in the manuals were followed. All tests were scored by the writer and statistical techniques were employed to interpret the results.

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