Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name



International Affairs and Development Program

First Advisor

Dr. Kwaku Danso


This thesis examined former president of Tanzania Julius Nyerere's development philosophy which rejected Marxist-Leninism for traditional African emphasis on communal living, decentralized decision making, and self-reliance. Through the Arusha Declaration, the commitment to socialism and self-reliance (1Ujamaa na Kujitegemea) was introduced. The purpose of this study is to analyze Tanzania's form of Socialist Development based on Ujamaa na Kujitegemea, African socialism and self-reliance, as stated in the Arusha Declaration. A comparison analysis approach was used to examine data from 1961 to 1985 to ascertain whether or not Tanzania was able to achieve Kujitegemea or self-reliance. Kujitegemea is the variable that will be used to measure the success rate of socialist development in Tanzania from 1961 to 1985. The data were obtained from Africa South of the Sahara 1986 and 1994. The Statesman's Year-Book. Country Profile - Tanzania. World Tables A World Bank Book, the 1986 and 1990 World Population Data Sheet and The Europa Year Book 1963 and 1986. The first criterion for judging the success of Ujamaa 's performance was operationalized by the Quality Life Index (QLI) which has three prime indicators: infant mortality, life expectancy, and the level of literacy. The second criterion used for judging Ujamaa's success was based on orthodox economics. Orthodox economics, also, has prime indicators: gross national product (GNP), gross domestic product (GDP), trade balance and the growth of national budgets. The researcher found that although Ujamaa na Kujitegemea was successful in terms of the QLI, in orthodox economic terms, Ujamaa na Kujitegemea was not very successful in reaching self-reliance. The conclusion drawn from the analysis suggests that factors outside of Tanzania's control had a major impact on the economy.