Student activism: a comparative analysis between the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the South African Student Organization (SASO) 1960-1977



The year 1980 marks the beginning of the worldwide tilt toward privatization as an instrument for economic reform and development in many countries around the world in general, and developing countries in particular. However, in developing countries privatization has been associated with the idea of liberalization and/or denationalization in which the role of the government in the economic activities will be reduced. Jordan is one of those countries who, in the mid-1980s, has come to consider the encouragement of the private sector to have a greater role in many aspects of the country's economy where the public sector was the dominant player. Increasing efficiency and effectiveness, and the lack of the public sector's ability to manage the wide range of growing economic and social needs, were the primary objectives of the government’s tilt toward the private sector. However, the adoption of privatization and the new policy of market reform is not an easy task in a country like Jordan, where the public sector was the only provider of the economic and social needs of the country. Therefore, implementing the new policy by those public sector officials, also referred to as administrators, department heads, and public sector managers, will be the challenge for the new policy. This study has examined the role of those implementors, governmental department heads in Jordan, in the implementation process of privatization. The importance of their role came from the fact that they are the ones who will be responsible for implementing the policy that might be formulated without their participation. So, in order to examine their role, whether it be positive or otherwise, the study has identified the factors that generally effected the overall opinion toward privatization in order to identify and produce a list of factors that were applicable to the case of Jordan's governmental department heads and the degree of the influence of each factor on their opinion. The importance of the role of those department heads underline the overall expectations surrounding the new policy in Jordan. The study, therefore, provides useful recommendations that could be necessary means for the policy-maker in Jordan to start with.