Date of Award


Degree Type


University or Center

Atlanta University (AU)


School of Education

Degree Name



Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Olivia Boggs


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two instructional models (In-Class and Pull-Out) and their impact on the achievement of students enrolled in the Chapter I Compensatory Program. An additional purpose was to investigate the impact of the principals’ leadership styles and teacher attitudes on the efficacy of these methods. Methods and Procedures-The first, second, and third grades of 30 Atlanta Public Schools of Area I served as the target population for this study. There were 52,869 students from low—income families in the Atlanta Public Schools in 1982-3--9,327 of those students were first, second, and third graders--37 of those students were enrolled in Area I of the Atlanta Schools. It is from this 937 students who represented better than 10% of the population of those grade levels that information was gathered. Average gain scores of the California Achievement Test (CAT) were collected and examined for students in grades 1, 2, and 3 between 1981 and 1985. The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory was administered to 275 regular (first, second, and third grade) teachers and Chapter I (specialists) teachers. Principals’ leadership styles were determined by qualified judgement, and a 10-item questionnaire was developed to acquire specific information related to the study. Five hypotheses and nine research questions were developed to assist in the research findings. The method used was normative survey utilizing appropriate statistical techniques to analyze data. Results- There was no significant difference between the CAT NCE gains of Chapter I students enrolled in the “Pull-out” or “In-class” model. There was no significant relationship between the attitudes of teachers as measured by the MTAI and the 1984-85 NCE gains made by Chapter I students. There was no significant difference between teacher scores on the MTAI and the three different principals’ leadership styles (Initiator, Manager, Responder). There was a significant difference between the CAT NCE gains of Chapter I students beyond the .05 level of significance in the school years from 1981-82 to 1984-85. There was also a significant difference beyond the .05 and .01 F- probability between the 1984-85 NCE gains of Chapter I students attending schools with principals because of the principals’ leadership styles. The “Manager” style of leadership was superior to the “Initiator” and “Responder” styles in reading and mathematics. The “Initiator” style of leadership in mathematics was also significant beyond the .05 level. Statistical analysis was by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Specific information gathered from the questionnaire indicated that teachers prefer the “Pull-out” model over the “In-class” model for instruction. Teachers feel that the principal supports the compensatory program and makes a difference in the success of the compensatory program, and also that teacher aides are needed. Teachers also believe that students can fulfill their needs best when teachers work as a team. The conflicting nature of the previous conclusion comes as a result of the “Pull-out” model representing the instruction by the teacher working alone. Conclusion-The role of the principal as instructional leader and the significant gains of the students enrolled in the Chapter I compensatory program reveal enough evidence for continued emphasis and study of the merits of these results. Teacher attitudes, as measured by MTAI, provided meaningful information; however, it is suggested that additional attitude surveys be developed to meet the present research needs on achievement. The information has provided enough positive findings for further research in methods of instruction, leadership styles, and teacher attitudes as they impact on the achievement of Compensatory Education Programs as well as the regular program for effective schools.

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