These authors assert that race is a determinant used by police officers to arrest and use deadly force against African American males. Race is an institutionalized factor that is embedded and widespread in society’s social structure. Hence, the institutional discrimination perspective is utilized to explain the issue of race. Institutional discrimination consists of practices or organizations and institutions that have a harmful effect on members of subordinate groups, in this case, African American males. Because race is institutionalized in the social structure, it is not surprising that law enforcement agencies use race as a factor in the arrest and deadly force against African Americans.
Stokes, Larry D.; Wilson, Zaphon R.; Jordan, Kenneth A.; and Harris, Davida M.
"Race as an Institutional Factor in the Arrest, and the use of Excessive and Deadly Force against African American Males,"
Endarch: Journal of Black Political Research: Vol. 2017
, Article 3.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.auctr.edu/enda/vol2017/iss1/3